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The word Quartz is derived from an old German word Quarz, which originally means something hard. Quartz is the most common and second most abundant mineral in the continental crust. It has the simplest chemical formula: silicon dioxide or SiO2.
Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system where crystals are twined, distorted or inter-grown with adjacent crystals of quartz. It is found in most geologic settings, but it most typically forms sedimentary rocks like sandstone. Since ancient times, Europe and the Middle East varieties of quartz are most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hard stone carvings.
They come in various shapes and colors, several of which are semi-precious gemstones. Traditionally, pure quartz is called rock crystal / clear quartz as it is colorless and transparent. Other colored varieties of quartz include citrine, rose quartz, amethyst, smoky quartz, milky quartz, and others.
A clock made from quartz uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal. Due to its accuracy over mechanical clocks, quartz timekeepers are the world's most widely-used timekeeping technology, used in most clocks and watches, as well as computers and other time keeping appliances.